Advice for astronomy PhD programs outside the US

I am currently a 3rd year astrophysics PhD in the US but for several reasons, I am mastering out soon. I am strongly considering applying for PhD programs in Europe (since they accept master’s students).

1. In the US, applications for PhD programs have deadlines near the end of the calendar year. Are programs outside of the US more variable with their deadlines such that I could apply during different times of the year? I have been skimming the pre-doctoral/graduate positions and that seems to be the case: [Current Job Ads | AAS Job Register](https://jobregister.aas.org/#PreDocGrad).
2. How long are these PhD programs? Do they have limits for when the student must graduate?
3. Besides the link above, are there other ways I can search for these positions?